Newspaper Documents on Emigration, Race, Barbadian-Canadian Relations. All documents from UWI-Cave Hill’s West Indian Collection (WIC).
· 1962 – Commonwealth Immigrants Act restricting West Indian/Coloured migration to UK
· 1962 – Official De-racialization of Canadian Immigration
· I think not. Canada was pressured by the UK to open its doors to Coloured folk, hence West Indians and Barbadians in particular. But Canada still kept their entry requirements extremely high (maybe even higher than the UK’s CIA to get the best of the best Barbadians and keep out the ones Canada did not want). See notes from Sunday Advocate: January 28th, 1962
Barbados Advocate. Wednesday January 4th, 1950.
· Barbadian-Canadian Relations
· Canadian National Steamships
o Advertisement and ship callings from Montreal.
The Advocate. Monday February 12th, 1962.
§ Barbadian-Canadian relations
§ “ ‘Little Eight’ must form own union, says Toronto editor.”
o Mr. J. Douglas MacFarlane, vice-president and editor-in-chief of the Toronto Telegram.
§ “I get the feeling that Barbados was very seriously interested and committed to make [West Indies] federation work. But from the very start we heard rumblings of unrest in Jamaica.”
The Advocate. Monday February 19th, 1962.
§ Barbadian-Canadian Relations
§ “Ex-policeman off to Montreal”
o “Mr. Barton Howard, former station sergeant of the Barbados Police Force, left yesterday afternoon by BWIA Britannia for Montreal to reside with his brother, Mr. Lawson Howard.”
***Sunday Advocate. January 28th, 1962.***
· Canada Immigration. Restrictions meaning the De-Racialization of Canadian immigration in 1962.
· “Migrants will flood in with the Bill”
o Rex Stolimeyer, Montreal Commissioner for the West Indies:
§ “Said the legislation proposed by the Canadian Government to lighten restrictions on immigration will bring a flood of applications from West Indians seeking entry.”
§ “It opens the door for a lot of people who couldn’t qualify before and there are lots of West Indians very anxious to come to Canada.”
§ “There is much more opportunity here.”
o “[The Canadian] Federal Government’s moves come as England plans to tighten restrictions on immigration from the West Indies.”
Canada regularly in the headlines and oftentimes front page news stories of The Advocate in 1967 (Montreal Expo of 1967 and Barbados’ contribution and pavilion a big topic of interest.) It must also be noted that 1967 was the year of the implementation of the Points System in Canada. Please note the previous and how this relationship must be tied to the articles on Barbadian emigration to Canada and how the migration may have been affected.
The Advocate. Wednesday, January 4th, 1967.
§ Barbadian-Canadian relations.
§ “Barbados Urged: Send Team to Woo Canada’s $”
o “Barbados has been urged to send a mission to Canada to meet Canadian businessmen and industrialists in an effort to attract Canadian investors to the island.”
The Advocate. Thursday, January 5th, 1967.
§ Barbadian-Canadian relations. ***Teachers***
§ “Canadian Minister Tours Institute”
o “Canada’s Secretary of State of External Affairs, Paul Martin, said yesterday that in order to meet the problems of the modern world, skills were necessary and the way to get them was by training.”
o Canadian teachers working at Erdiston Teachers Training College through the Canadian External Aid Programmes.
§ “An important part of Canada’s external aid programme was educational assistance.”
The Advocate. Friday April 28th, 1967.
§ Canadian Immigration
§ “Bajans Needed to Work in Canada”
o “Barbadians may soon be selected for farm work in Canada for a period of about four months”
o See July 1st, 1967 article stating it will be the first time Bajan farm workers in Canada.
The Advocate. Sunday, May 21st, 1967.
§ Canadian Immigration. Barbadian Domestics in Canada. Austin Clarke. See notes on West Indian women recruited for Household Helps on page 8 of the Migration Notes.
§ “Canada Offers Domestics Chance for Improvement”
§ Article written by Mitchie Hewitt
o Austin Clarke’s views of Bajan women working in Canada as domestics:
§ “For Barbadian girls, far removed from the domestic class, this is an outlet and eagerly grasped as when the year’s contract is complete there (sic) are free to seek other employment and to reside permanently in Canada.”
o “…The Barbadian girls can survive, and be far better off than if they remained at home, and ready to take advantage of the opportunities which exist in Canada.”
o “Let there be no mistake about it. Canada is a tough place for the Coloured West Indian.”
o “Canada is a white man’s country with the whites doing from menial to executive jobs.”
o Caribbean Canadian Association:
§ “This association is dedicated to building a West Indian in Canada. On the occasion of Barbados’ Independence the Association presented the Barbados independence celebration, banquet and dance,” in Toronto.
o “Now that Canada is opening her doors to skilled West Indians everything should be done by the Barbadian Government to train them in the skills which are needed.”
§ Evidence of more Government involvement, or continued involvement, of sponsoring and training emigrants to fit the needs of the Canadian market and economy.
o “The privations which the Barbadian will be called upon to endure during his first few months are nothing to compare with the financial and other benefits which will accrue later.”
o “If our girls go to Canada as domestics, there is nothing in the world to prevent them from qualifying for good positions during their period of working.”
o Barbadians clearly knew how to circumvent Canada’s restrictive immigration policy and use it to their advantage. Domestics, and the country that sent them, knew that they must devalue themselves for a year in a meaningless position, but knew that following their period of indentureship, they were free to become contributing members of Canadian society as Canadian citizens. Barbadians are socially mobile and transnational opportunists.
The Advocate. July 1st, 1967.
§ Barbadian-Canadian relations. Canadian Immigration
§ Special section in Advocate on Canada’s Centennial including articles on Canadian History
§ “Canada Forges Links with Her Aid”
o “Barbadians in increasing numbers have been seeking higher education at Canadian universities.” See notes on Canada-West Indies magazine on page 6 of BDS-CDN Relations notes.
o “Barbadian domestics have been placed in their hundreds in Canadian homes over the past six years.”
o “More and more skilled Barbadians have been emigrating to Canada recently to take up jobs there or other Barbadians have gone to join relatives.”
o “…Shortly a number of Barbadians are to be recruited to work on Canadian farms this year along with other West Indians. This will be the first time that Barbadian labour will be recruited for Canadian farms.”
***The Advocate. September 17th, 1967.***
§ Highlighting and Criticizing the Brain Drain from Barbados to Canada.
§ “Barrow to Press Canada to Relax Immigration Laws”
§ “Right now, they (Canada) are taking away our skilled people.”
§ “We are hoping for a larger uptake of ordinary workers and in fact they are taking more this year.”
o “Prime Minister Errol Barrow said yesterday that he will try to persuade Canada to further relax its immigration laws during his forthcoming visit to Ottawa.” See notes on Barrow from page 1 of BDS-CDN relations.
The Advocate. Monday January 1, 1962.
· UK Migration and British Migration Bill (Commonwealth Immigrants Act)
· “CEL meet to discuss Migrant Bill”
o Administrative Committee of the Caribbean Congress of Labour to discuss the British Immigration Bill at a special meeting in Trinidad, January 15th & 16th.
The Advocate. Wednesday January 3rd, 1962.
· Migrant Control Bill (Commonwealth Immigrants Act)
· “No hard shocks for our U.K. emigrants, he says”
o Mr. Richard Williams, a shipping agent and managing director of Richard A. Williams and Company Limited
o “The British Government’s Migrant Control Bill will not affect Barbadians to the extent as it will Jamaicans.”
§ “Only about a third of the Barbadian emigrants will be affected.
o Pressure from the British Labour Party to pass Bill
o With new Bill, Migrants must have:
§ “(1) health certificate; (2) a clean police record, and (3) either an assured job or assured living accommodation.”
· Barbadian-Canadian relations
o First Trans-Canada (Air Canada flights) to and from Barbados from Montreal or Toronto
o Began Feb 6th, 1962
o $523.80 West Indian dollars for a return flight
Sunday Advocate. January 14th, 1962.
· UK Immigration. Barbados not as affected by CIA as others
· “U.K. ban will work them harder”
o Mr. Frank Jeremiah, Assistant Liaison Officer for Barbados at the Barbados Liaison Service in Britain:
§ “Barbados is the only West Indian territory which has schemes that fulfill all the conditions which are now being demanded by all those in Britain who are against the influx of West Indians to their country.”
The Advocate. Monday, April 9th, 1962.
§ UK Immigration and British Migration Bill (CIA). Manipulation of stats by politicians to create fear mongering against Commonwealth migration to the UK.
§ “Immigration statistics were false”
o “Statistics prompted the British Government to panic-draft the wretched Immigration Bill and thrust it through the House of Commons against all opposition.”
o “Passion prejudice, political casuistry – good honest figures have been skillfully manipulated throughout the great immigration debate to serve those ends. And not by one side alone, though by far the greater guilt lies with the supporters of the Bill.”
o The Economics Intelligence Unit, published a booklet called, “Studies in Immigration from the Commonwealth,” which proved that immigration from the Commonwealth was in fact much lower than what was tabled in the House.
§ In 10 years (1951-1961), Britain’s actual increase of population was 6,000 persons out of a total population of 52,000,000.
§ Home Secretary on January 23rd, 1962 argued that net immigration into Britain jumped from 58,550 to 135,050 in 1961. The jump would’ve had to have been the result of the incoming CIA.
§ However, the information was “misleading” and not a “fair basis for estimating future migratory movements”.
o Britain’s Conservative Party argued that immigration from the Commonwealth was growing so fast and needed a bill because Britain was “bulging at the seams” and unable to provide either accommodation or jobs”.
The Advocate. Saturday May 19th, 1962.
§ UK Immigration and British Immigration Bill (CIA)
§ “The British Immigration Bill restricting the entry of West Indians comes into operation June 30th.”
§ “Going to England? Emigrants must first qualify.”
o The article outlines the new restrictions and qualifications on entering the UK (as outlined in UK Info booklet information on page 10 of the Migration Notes section)
The Advocate. Friday January 27th, 1967.
§ US Immigration of Barbadians
§ “U.S. Cuts Migration Limit on Bajans”
o “According to Mr. George Doigin (U.S. Consulate-General in Barbados), the new system is now in effect and immigration by native-born Barbadians is no longer subject to numerical limitation as had been the case before independence.”
Race and Racism in Barbados
The Advocate. Wednesday, February 14th, 1962.
§ Race and Racism in Barbados. One may argue that Barbadians were prepared for racial discrimination in Canada, because they experienced a “colour racism” in Barbados. No, not as pervasive as in Canada, but still quite influential in politics, business, and social life choices. A Black-White dichotomy existed, but also a Black-Brown stratification and gradations of Blackness discrimination which dictated Barbadian hierarchal structures.
§ “Barrow says: Stamp out discrimination”
o “Premier Errol Barrow, his deputy Mr. Wynter Crawford, Trade Union Leader Mr. Frank Walcott and Mr. Ernest Mottley, leader of the Barbados National Party, all in the House of Assembly yesterday spoke out against racial discrimination in Barbados.”
§ “Where a single penny of expenditure of the Government of the island is involved we should not only discourage, but stamp out any discriminatory practise that may arise.”
§ “What this Government intends in this island is that the coloured people must be accorded a new type of treatment and must be accepted as equals with others in this island.”
The Advocate. Thursday, February 15th, 1962.
§ Race and Racism in Barbados. It must be noted that these community leaders were in fact leaders of White establishments in Barbados (i.e. Barbados Yacht Club). Whites don’t openly admit there is racism and discrimination. That’s usually the case for people on the top of the vertical silo; they don’t see how discrimination got them to the top and how it maintains their position.
§ “Colour bar – what’s that?”
o “Barbados’ community leaders yesterday criticized the suggestion made by Mr. Frank Walcott that the federal capital should not be sited in Barbados because of racial discrimination.”
o Mr. O.H. Johnson, retired businessman:
§ “…the idea of racial discrimination is ridiculous. There is no reason why a particular race or set of people should not have a particular club of their own. But it does not mean that they are better than anyone else.” Racialized Rhetoric.
The Advocate. Wednesday February 21st, 1962.
§ Race and Racism in Barbados.
§ “Is there racial discrimination in Barbados” Third of Series.
o “The struggle of the coloured majority to bring themselves up to a level of equality in the field of politics, economics, education and so on, has often been accompanied by the battle cry of ‘racial discrimination’.”
o “Barbadians are hypocritical about colour,” says Oxford University graduate, Henry Forde
o Politicians using race and colour as a means for political votes – Racial politics and Ethnic Entrepreneurialism
§ “This failure of the island to produce a genuine and effective non-racial political party helps to perpetuate the outmoded pockets of colour and race discrimination which exists in other aspects of the community’s business. Thus the “whites” feel themselves routed politically and no longer accepted. The ‘blacks’ feel that they, because of their numbers, have a divine right to rule, and it is often forgotten that the salvation of these islands lies in genuine non-racialism.
§ “In Barbados there certainly exists colour prejudice. This is not the same thing as racial discrimination, but it is closely allied to it.”
o The Barbadians’ occupation with “the good hair” or “fair skin” of Blacks in Barbados, is the “very harping by the coloureds on discriminatory facets which foster in their own minds castles of ‘colour prejudice’ if not of ‘racial discrimination’.”