Monday, July 18, 2011

Notes from the Leper Asylum - Part V

Early Barbadian/West Indian-Canadian Relations – Primary Documents (19th and early 20thC)

Just a quick note about the colours and highlights for my notes.  The stuff written in red is my primary analysis and opinion of the notes from the documents (written in black)Yellow highlights indicate super duper essential and make or break important information, bold indicates very super duper essential information, bold and italics pretty much means the same thing, and the sea blue highlights are things that I want to catch my eye (ie titles and different sections and thoughts as I go along and not wanting to forget anything).

Probably doesn't make much sense to y'all, but it's a system that works for me.

“Proceedings of Canada Conference, 1908.”  Minutes of a Meeting of the Canadian Trade Relations        Conference held at the House of Assembly Room, on Wednesday the 15th January 1908, at 10:15am.  (Barbados Archives)

·         West Indian-Canadian trade and goods complimentary
·         “Practically 79 per cent. of all sugar consumed in Canada has been obtained directly from the West Indies.” (p.2)
·         Through businessmen in Canada, “that there were various circumstances likely to interfere with the continuance of a favourable market for West Indian sugars in Canada”. (p.2)
·         The reason for the Conference (p.2):
o   A fear of antagonizing the United States if there are closer relations with Canada (West Indian fears)
o   Mr. Hanschell (Barbadian delegate) proposed raising the tariff for other countries and not Canada to keep preferable trading relations
·         The Chairman (p.8):
o   “It was true, and fortunately true, that the West Indies and Canada were not completely, but to a remarkable degree complementary to each other…Canada had no tropical connexions whose claims upon her were strong than ours.”
·         Meeting.  Saturday, January 18th at 11am (p.19):
o   Establishment of telegraphic communication between Canada, the West Indies and British Guiana, “is most desirable for the improvement of mutual trade relations”.

Report of Proceedings of the Canada-West Indies Conference, 1920.  Ottawa: Thomas Mulvey, Printer to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty, 1920. (Barbados Archives)

·         Preferable trade (imports) of West Indian goods to Canada
·         19th Century (p.1):
o   “Preference given to West Indian products in the markets of Canada in the year 1897 (first extended tariff preference between the West Indies and Canada), though not reciprocated by the West Indian Colonies, gave a distinct impetus to trade between the two sections of the Empire and produced in these Islands a conviction of the goodwill of Canada which has had the happiest influence upon our social and commercial relations.”
·         His Excellency the Governor General of Canada (p.4):
o   In this conference, and, necessarily, the principle subject for discussion will be the relations between the West Indies and the Dominion…cementing all portions of the Empire by closer bonds and closer ties.”
·         Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Borden (Prime Minister of Canada) (p.4-5):
o   “His Excellency has explained all the opportunities for development of trade, and more than that, all intercourse of every kind between the British West Indies and this Dominion.”
·         Rum (p.143):
o   In 1919, Canada imported 214,000 gallons of rum
o   180,000 gallons from the British West Indies
o   3,000 gallons from Barbados
o   Note: The statistics stated at the Conference are not accurate or congruent with each other
·         The Canada-West Indies Trade Agreement, 1920 (p.178):
o   Article 1:
§  “The Dominion of Canada affirms the principle of granting a preference on all goods being the produce or manufacture of any of the Colonies (British West Indian Colonies) aforesaid imported into Canada, which are now subject to duty or which may be made subject to duty at any future time.”

Report of the Proceedings of the Canada-West Indies Conference, 1925, with the Canada-British West   Indies-Bermuda-British Guiana-British Honduras Trade Agreement, 1925.  Ottawa: F.A. Acland,   Printer to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty, 1926 (Barbados Archives).

·         Favourable Canadian-West Indian relations:
·         Rt. Hon. W.L. Mackenzie King (Prime Minister) (p.2-3):
o   “Indeed, one has to consider for a moment the relations in which, geographically, we have been placed, to appreciate what it means both to the West Indies in the tropical part of the world, and our own country in the temperate zone, to have the privilege of exchanging the products which each of us is in a special position to produce and manufacture, and to be able to do this without some of the keen rivalries in trade which come where competition is between those who belong to the same zone.”
o   “Whatever we do in the matter of increasing trade between ourselves will, we believe, not only be serving our mutual interests but will assist in developing a community of interest within the Empire itself, and that is all to the good for all concerned.” (p.4)

The Canada-West Indies Magazine. May 1937 & June 1937.  (Barbados Archives)

·         In this issue (May 1937):
·         An article called, “Bugaboo in Barbados,” by A. Clifford Archer
o   “In the following, the first of a series, the author has set down a few of the many stories and legends of places and events of his native Barbados (i.e. ghost stories).  The events he relates are in many cases unaccountable but nevertheless are vouched for by responsible persons who claim to have witnessed them.” (p.1)
o   An intimate look for Canadians at Barbadian folklore.  But who was the specified audience?  It had to be Canadians, because there are tourist advertisements for the West Indies.  I.e.  “Honeymoon Tours” for “Summer Brides of 1937” in Trinidad and Tobago with White people (mostly women) adorning the ad photo. (p.3)
·         June 1937:
o   An article about Canadian tourism – Canadian audience (p.6)
o   The number of tourist coming to Canada.  No mention of Barbados or the West Indies

Canada West-Indies Magazine: Saluting The West Indies Federation.  November 1957, Vol. XLVII, No. 11. Published and printed at Huntingdon, Quebec. (Barbados Archives)

·         Canadian audience.  Background of the Magazine:
·         Established in 1911 by the Canadian West Indian League (p.1):
o   “Published monthly, for the promotion of mutual interest of Canada, Bermuda, the British West Indies, British Guiana, British Honduras and other British countries in the Caribbean.”
·         Advertisements:
o   Canadian National (West Indies) Steamships Ltd, Saguenay Terminals Ltd., Trans-Canada Airlines.
o   Promoting trade and tourism to the Caribbean
·         The Honourable Gordon Churchill, D.S.O., M.A., LL.B (p.3):
o   Minister of Trade and Commerce:
o   “I congratulate the ‘Canada-West Indies Magazine’ on its efforts, over a period of forty-six years, to provide Canadians with a better understanding of conditions in the British West Indies.  This issue will undoubtedly outline some of the problems that the establishment of a new unit within this Commonwealth will create, and point the way towards closer associations between our respective peoples in the years that lie ahead.”
·         Mitchell W. Sharp (p.3):
o   Deputy Minister, Canada Department of Trade and Commerce:
o   Canada and the West Indies are old friends and old trading partners.  From the second half o the eighteenth century, the two regions have shared the kinship which has arisen from mutual associations, in what is now the Commonwealth.”
·         Canadian Business in Barbados (p.7):
o   The Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada one of the first Canadian organizations in Barbados (and the Caribbean as a whole), 1879.
·         Canadian-West Indian League (p.7):
o   Formed in 1911
o   Spearheaded Canadian-West Indian trade in the 1920s
o   Consolidated trade agreements of 1897, 1898, and 1912
o   Sun Life helped form Canadian-West Indian League whose headquarters were in Montreal
o   The League sponsored by the Sun Life president, T.B. Macauly, “who headed it for 20 years and who was a life-long champion of West Indian-Canadian friendship”.
·         Rt. Hon. Lord Hailes (p.11):
o   Governor-General Designate, West Indies Federation:
o   “I am confident that the Federation of the West Indies will not look in vain for friendship and support from the Dominion of Canada as she moves towards her place within our Family of Nations.”
·         ***Race (p.41)***
o   “Race Relations Seen Best in West Indies” (magazine article):
o   Sir Hugh Foot, Governor of Jamaica address to Canadian Club of Montreal (he is white in appearance from the look of the photo in the magazine.  The photo was black and white, so it’s possible that he may have been a light skinned Black man, but since he was Governor, he was most likely British.)
o   “The Governor of Jamaica said yesterday (October 8) that the West Indies have the best racial relations in the world.”
o   “…a contributing factor in making the forthcoming British West Indian Federation a reality.” (p.41)
o   “The islands, he said, represented a microcosm of the whole racial problem in the British Commonwealth, and inter-racial relations there ‘are better than anywhere else in the world’.”
o   Interesting that this was addressed to White Canadians when Canada still had a legal and formal policy of White Canada in terms of immigration.
o   West Indian Federation (defunct only after a few years), according to Foot, looked towards Canada and their Confederation and province vs. federal rights on how and if members of Island governments should sit on the Federal West Indian board (p.42).

Canada-West Indies Magazine.  June 1953, Vol. XLIII, No. 6.  Published and Printed at Huntingdon,          Quebec. (Barbados Archives)

·         Advertisements:
o   Albert College, Ontario Ladies’ College, Alma College, University of New Brunswick, Havergal College, Three Maids Flour, Alcoa Steamship Company
·         The Bank of Nova Scotia in Jamaica in 1889 (p.8)
·         Advertisements for Canadian Universities:
o   Canada trying to attract the best and the brightest West Indians to their Universities.  Still a Canadian focused publication, but with West Indian readers.
o   Article on Mount Allison University (p.13-16)
o   A short article entitled: “Students from West Indies Graduate at McGill University” (p.16):
§  Including Barbadians:
§  Charles Richard Grove Watson (Mechanical Engineering)
§  Stanley Howard Watson (Bachelor of Science)
§  Kenrick Herbert Cecil Thorne (Bachelor of Science in Agriculture)
§  Margaret Evelyn Johnson (Bachelor of Household Economics)
o   Photo Journal of Moulton College of Toronto (girls’ school) (p.19)

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