Thursday, October 27, 2011

Christopher in the News

I'm no Maya Angelou or Kevin O'Leary, but I can say that I'm featured in the same newspaper volume as the two of them.  Photo and all, folks!

Check this out (scroll to page 13):

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Double Down & Double Up Your Waistline

If you haven't heard, Black people (and some White people for that matter) love chicken.  If you also hadn't heard, the vast majority of Barbadians or Bajans are Black.  Thus with that piece of LSAT logic, I can rightfully deduce that Barbados loves chicken.

For those of you that have never been to Barbados, fast food chicken is king.  Imagine Tim Hortons served coagulated cardiac arrest instead of liquid cocaine?  That's what Chefette is to Bajans.

And what's greater than a Chefette grease trap hiding as a snack box with a big ol' side of sugar water with bubbles and food colouring?  (For the record and for those health conscious folks, broasted chicken at Chefette is broasted in zero trans fat.  Yes, broasted.  How many people minus cardiac surgeons have even heard of the word?)

But back to the finger licking good point at hand.  What is better than eating a broasted breast as the highlight of your meal?  Wrapping both your hands around two broasted breasts smothered around bacon and cheese.  

KFC's Double Down:

Double Down meet Barbados.  Barbados meet Double Down.  KFC meet massive profits.  Barbados meet clogged arteries.

One DD (Daring Death) sandwich has 540 calories, 32g of fat, and 1380mg of sodium.  For most people those numbers mean absolutely nothing.  But when you compare that the recommended average daily sodium intake is 1500mg for people aged 9-50, you start to understand that the Double Downing could actually kill you.

This is not a public service announcement, and yes, I who climbed all the way to the top of Mount Kill-A-Man-Jaro was not able to finish one single DD sandwich.  I admit it.  Eating one of those sandwiches was like drinking a litre of sea water that was marinated in the ocean.  I think the only thing saltier would be if someone invented a new brand of salt that was saltier than salt itself.

If you're a high school student or that 99% that's occupying cities all over the world because you don't have a job here's a suggestion: go to med school and become a cardiologist.  Barbados will need plenty in the near future.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

The End of Rihanna

I knew Rihanna was a big deal, but I didn't know she had the ability to predict the future.  Not many artists get the chance to videotape how their career will come crashing to an end.  You heard it here first, folks.

Thursday, October 20, 2011

Herman Cain & Morgan Freeman

Astroturfing anyone?  Like it or not, the dude has a point.

"If you don't have a job and you're not rich, blame yourself."  At least he didn't say blame Jews.

And Mr. Freeman also has a real good point on how racism has gotten worse, not better, since Obama came to office.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Things I wouldn't do for a $1

My list is pretty long, but I think this one ranks near the top.

In all fairness to my fellow Black superhero, I don't really know if it was a one dollar bet or just a guy that knows he can't die.  Maybe he is a crackhead, maybe he's just a guy that wanted to jump off a house.  I will not pass judgment on this man, because well, he has lived to tell the story.

Disclaimer:  If you try this at home, you're an idiot.

Monday, October 17, 2011

Herman Cain

If you've never heard of this man, read this article.  And if you've watched the movie The Ides of March you might see the whole Black Democratic vs. Black Republican as a manipulated sham.

And word of the day: Astroturfing.

Sunday, October 16, 2011

What White People Should Know About Black People

We are people just like you.

We are fat.  We are skinny.  We like hot dogs.  We watch CNN.  We listen to country music.  We play hockey.  We drink beer.  We love our children.  We are smart.  We are stupid.  We are conscious.  We are ignorant.  We go to school.  We have jobs.  We are homeless.  We are unemployed.  We drive Audis.  We ride bikes.  We own dogs.  We bowl.  We have Blackberrys.  We smoke.  We suffer from mental illness.  We have cancer.  We like Obama.  We hate Obama.  We are conservatives.  We are liberals.  We love Black people.  We are Christians.  We are Muslims.  We are Atheists.  We kill White people.  We kill Black people.  We save people.  We drop bombs.  We save homes.  We win.  We lose.

So let's get back to basics and throw away all these theories about learning cultural difference to end racism.  All we need to do is see people as people.

Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Ram It!

This video goes out to all those capri pant - ahem - I mean skinny short wearing Leroys out there in the world.  At the time, these guys thought this video and lyrics were the hottest things since sliced bread.  Now?  Hmmm, I'm not so sure.

Shoot, even my man Eriq cut his hair for ER

I say LeBron, Bosh, and Wade take this advice on how to win and ram it!

Disclaimer: This blog does not promote ramming of any kind.  Day or night.

Tuesday, October 11, 2011

My Publication

To continue with the work themed posts lately, here's a link to a book review I just got published over the weekend.  If you want to learn a little bit about Black Canadian history from a book that I have officially reviewed and endorsed, check out Sarah-Jane Mathieu's North of the Color Line: Migration and Black Resistance in Canada, 1870-1955.

Friday, October 7, 2011

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

Notes from the Gorilliphant Cage - Part IV

§  Immigration from the West Indies (& Coloured Immigration General) Policy & Instructions. R76; Vol. 830, File 552-1-644 (Part 3)
§  Department of External Affairs, Canada.  Numbered Letter to the Under-Secretary of State for External Affairs, Ottawa, Canada.  From Office of the Commissioner for Canada, Port-of-Spain, R.G.C. Smith.  October 24th, 1961.
o   “The Emigration Problem for the West Indies”:
§  “On page 113 of the overseas edition of The Economist of the 14th of October there is an interesting article on this problem.  In that the absurdity of trying to argue that the restrictions are not aimed at coloured immigration is pointed out.  I am quite sure that this is a correct criticism.  Nobody will be convinced that the proposed restrictions are not based on colour.  To try to make it appear so is an insult to the intelligence of the coloured people.”
§  “From my own experience here, I have found that when talking of Canada’s immigration policy it has always been best to acknowledge the colour problem, to say that it is not Government policy to encourage or acquiesce to racialism in immigration or in anything else, but that public opinion based on years of prejudice cannot be changed over night, that the unfortunate fact remains that in a period of unemployment if two people apply for a job, it will be the white man who will be chosen as a general rule, that it is to avoid pockets of coloured unemployment that we must restrain immigration.”
§  “Should the British restrictions come to pass, inevitably this will increase the pressures on us to allow more West Indians into Canada…We can expect, therefore, that whatever move the British take in this field, almost regardless of whether the restrictions are real or token, this will develop pressures on Canada.

§  Immigration from the West Indies (& Coloured Immigration General) Policy & Instructions. R76; Vol. 830, File 552-1-644 (Part 4)
§  Globe and Mail, Nov. 5, 1963
o   “Questions”:
o   “In February, 1962, the Progressive Conservative Government altered immigration regulations so that admission to Canada depended more on the skills offered by would-be immigrants than on their color or country of origin.  It was admitted at the time that the success of the change would depend on the administration of the regulations.”
o   “In 1961, 1,249 persons came to Canada from British and other West Indian Islands.  In 1962, after the regulations were changed, the figure was 1,586.  So far this year, 1,542 have arrived.  These increases are disappointingly small and raise some questions which Mr. Favreau might ask.”
§  Department of External Affairs, Canada, Numbered Letter to the Under-Secretary of State for External Affairs, Ottawa Canada.  From, Office of the High Commissioner for Canada (G.C. McInnes), Kingston, Jamaica, August 2nd, 1963.
o   “Jamaican Immigration to Canada”:
§  “West Indians have long been unhappy about Canadian immigration restrictions.  This attitude may have been diminished by the new immigration regulations, but the frequency with which the subject is raised with us here is ample evidence that it is far from eliminated.  This can be partly explained by the time it takes for the effect of the changes to become clear.  But many Jamaicans who wish to go to Canada do not meet the requirements of the new regulations, and Jamaicans in general are reluctant to recognize the deficiencies which make them unacceptable as immigrants.
§  “Generally speaking, negro Jamaicans tend to attribute their inability to meet standards accepted in Canada and other countries to racial prejudice, and refuse to recognise that common Jamaican attributes, such as irresponsible parenthood and indolence, are not regarded with indifference elsewhere.”
§  Report on the October 25-27, 1963 Conference on “Commonwealth Partners in the West Indies” sponsored by The Canadian Institute of International Affairs (Fredericton Branch) and the University of New Brunswick.
o   “Two or three of the Canadian speakers insisted that Canada’s immigration door should be opened wide so as to accept all West Indian immigrants who wished to settle in this country. “
o   Overpopulation and Unemployment:
o   “All agreed that population pressure was very great in the islands, especially in Barbados where unemployment averaged close to 15% of the labour force.  Population was increasing so rapidly that a very high rate of economic growth was needed just to provide enough jobs to keep pace with the increase.”
o   Before CIA in Britain in first 6 months of 1962, she accepted 40,000 WI emigrants.  Last 6 months, only 4,000.
o   After regulations relaxed a bit in Canada, Canada accepted 1400 WI IGs in 1962; however, “it was mentioned time and again that Canada should relax its regulations even further”.
o   Most Canadian speakers felt that Canada still discriminated against West Indians because of their colour; this was done not under any law or regulation but by the immigration officer on the spot who for years had been working under the old regulations and so interpreted the new ones in light of his past experiences.”
o   “A strong feeling existed among many of the Canadian delegates that Canada still has two immigration standards, one for whites and another for blacks.”

§  Memorandum to A/Chief of Operations. From Head, Administration Section, February 28th, 1963.
o   “Visit of Immigration Officers to Caribbean and South America”
o   Total Number of Immigration Cases approved in Barbados: 15 cases of 19 persons
o   Total Number of Immigration Cases refused in Barbados: 23 cases of 53 persons
o   Jamaica: 120 cases and 251 persons approved VS. 181 cases and 427 persons refused

§  Memorandum to Cabinet. Re: Opening a Canadian Immigration Office in The West Indies. From the Minister of Citizenship and Immigration (No specified date of revisions.  First draft dated November 1962)
o   “Canada’s new Immigration Regulations which came into force on February 1, 1962, provided that anyone in the world could apply to come to Canada without regard to his race or country of nationality, subject only to standards of health, character, education, training, etc.”
o   Paragraph 11 of Memorandum dated October 16, 1961:
§  “The new regulations assume that for all the countries of the world the Canadian Immigration authorities will be able to apply the new criteria of admissibility successfully.  It should however be pointed out that in many of these countries we have no staff of our own: In addition, these tests must inevitably be subjective to a large extent, and this fact places a heavy pressure on our overseas visa officers.  It may well be necessary to open new offices in countries where no Canadian immigration officers presently are operative (e.g., West Indies, Spain, Japan): and to strengthen staff elsewhere, to assume these new and difficult responsibilities.”
o   “Thus far the most noticeable effect of the new Immigration Regulations has been in The West Indies.  Applications from persons in the Caribbean area began to build up as soon as the new regulations were announced and in June of this year an Immigration team was sent from Ottawa to the Caribbean to examine 311 family units which had been tentatively selected on the basis of ‘paper screening’.”
o   Total of 3,025 applications from The West Indies since the new immigration regulations came into effect.
o   Kingston, Jamaica being the logical site for an Immigration Office that would serve the West Indies (including Barbados).  Was not finalized.  Geographical, travel, and logistical issues trying to serve the entire Caribbean.  Traveling Immigration Missions thus served the Caribbean yearly following the new Regulations of 1962 up to and including 1966.
§  Foreign Trade Service.  To Mr. D.A. Reid, Chief of Operations, Immigration Branch, Department of Citizenship & Immigration, Ottawa.  From Roy W. Blake, Canadian Government Trade Commissioner, Kingston, Jamaica.  February 8th, 1962.
o   “The news about the revision of Canada’s immigration laws first appeared in the Jamaican press on Saturday, January 20th, and naturally more emphasis was placed on the lifting of the colour bar than on the necessity for skills.  Today is our fourteenth working day since then and we have now handed out over 1000 forms; in other words there is an average of 70 persons coming to our office each day regarding emigration.”
o   In the Letter of Refusal to those JA IGs, the sentence, “ ‘you do not come within the categories of persons being admitted to Canada’ has been particularly offensive to unsuccessful applicants in this territory.  They understandably feel that ‘category’ refers to colour, and if the use of the same sentence is continued, many will think that there has been no change in Canadian immigration policy.”

§  Immigration from the Caribbean Area. RG76; Volume, 820; File, 552-1-533
§  July 14th, 1966.  Canada-West Indies Conference – Follow-up action.  Assistant Deputy Minister (Immigration).  Director of Policy and Planning.  July 14th, 1966.
o   In general we are committed to dealing with West Indian immigrants on a completely non-discriminatory basis.  This means that special care must be taken to ensure that the criteria applied in Europe are applied by our selection teams visiting the Caribbean having regard to characteristic West Indian sensitivity towards real or imagined discrimination.”
o   “Arising from the Conference and the publicity which has been given to our selection criteria we can expect an increased number of applications from the West Indies.”
§  Commonwealth Caribbean-Canada Conference, Ottawa, July 6-8, 1966. June 1st, 1966.
o   “Immigration to Canada from the Commonwealth Caribbean (Background paper prepared by Canada”:
§  “Immigrants from Commonwealth countries of the Caribbean are admissible to Canada under the broadest of the admissible categories provided for in Canadian immigration law.  The Canadian Immigration Act and Regulations permit the admission of immigrants from the Caribbean area in two separate streams.”
·         Selected Immigrants: education, skills, training, or other special qualifications to “enable them to establish themselves successfully in Canada”.
·         Unsponsored Immigrants: spouses, sons or daughters and their spouses and children if under 21 years of age, brother or sisters and if married with their spouses and children under 21 years of age, parents and grandparents, fiancĂ© or fiancĂ©e, “unmarried orphan news or nieces under 21 years of age”
o   The paper states, “Aside from the admission of a few individuals under special authorities, there was little immigration from the Caribbean prior to 1955”.  In 1955 the beginning of the Domestic Scheme.
§  The previous statement is not true because Black WIs attempted to emigrate to Canada but the door was firmly closed and Canadian legislation, specifically that denying Black West Indians were British Subjects, excluded them from migrating.
o   “Allegations of Racial Discrimination”: Canada denies racist immigration policy
§  “Canadian immigration law makes no distinction between the racial origins of immigrants.  The degrees of relationship of persons admissible as sponsored immigrants do at present vary from country to country.”
§  “Normal and necessary criteria with respect to such matters as health, financial responsibility and absence of criminal record are applied impartially to all applicants without distinction to race.”
o   Barbadian Immigrants -1965:
§  Sponsored: 327
§  Unsponsored: 233
§  Total: 560
§  Memorandum to Deputy Minister from Assistant Deputy Minister (Immigration).  January 21, 1966.
o    “Forthcoming Canada – West Indies Conference.”
§  States Canadian immigration law is not “racially biased” but admits that they do concentrate most of their immigration offices in the US and Europe.
§  Since 1962 they have varied the racial selection of immigrants, but “have proceeded with some caution in order to avoid a too-rapid rate of change which might result in adverse reaction by the Canadian public which in turn could weaken the whole concept of a universal non-discriminatory policy.”
§  “The repeated West Indian charge that Canadian immigration policies are racially discriminatory is a convenient screen for their real objective, namely a preferred place in our policies under which we would relax our selection standards and take large numbers of their unskilled and surplus population.  The West Indians must realize that this is out of the question.”
§  Canadians accusing West Indians of using the very real fact of Canadian racialization of their immigration policy.  CDN Gov saying that West Indians simply want Canada to take its unskilled surplus population.  The Deputy Minister must stand down from his defensive stance and not turn and realize that there was substantial legal and legislated evidence substantiating the West Indians claim of racial discrimination in Canadian immigration policy.

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

Notes from the Gorilliphant Cage - Part III


Immigration from the West Indies - Part 3 to follow (p.13)

§  Department of Citizenship and Immigration, Immigration Branch, Intradepartmental Correspondence; to Chief Operations Division, Ottawa; from A/Director, United Kingdom.  February 28th, 1955.
o   “Emigration from Barbados, B.W.I.”
o   “The Barbados authorities propose to establish a training scheme, in co-operation with the British authorities, with a view to transporting to the United Kingdom a number of female domestic workers who have been partly trained in household duties in Barbados; the final training would be completed in the United Kingdom under the National Institute of House Workers, and at the completion of this training, they would be considered efficient for placement in British households and institutions, etc. for domestic duties.”
o   “It is anticipated that arrangements would be made, as a start, to ship some 200 female domestic workers to the United Kingdom, and it was felt that they could be readily absorbed into this country.  The question was raised as to whether the Canadian government had any scheme comparable to the one now proposed by the United Kingdom, and if not, would the Canadian government favourably entertain a similar scheme.”
§  Colonial Office, The Church House, Gt. Smith Street, London, S.W.1. Letter from Frederick Hudd, Esq., C.B.E. February 24th, 1955
o   “I would like to emphasize that the Barbados Government fully realize that other people also have their employment problems and do not wish to suggest anything in the way of a mass migration, or indeed anything that would cause difficulties in Canada.  However, they would welcome anything in the way of a controlled scheme, either for domestic workers or for any other category of emigrant and, naturally, we in the Colonial Office would be happy to see any such scheme inaugurated.”
o   “The vast majority of the inhabitants are racially negroid but British by three centuries of tradition and culture.”
o   “The need for outlets for emigration from Barbados is acute and the Island can produce a force of many hundreds of domestic servants, and a large number of semi-skilled or unskilled workers, as well as a smaller number of other workers with a secondary education.”
o   Refuting Climate Discrimination
o   “Although Barbados is in the Tropics, its people have shown themselves to be well able to withstand cold climates.”
o   Controlled Emigration (Proposing the Domestic Scheme)
o   “The Barbados Government fully realise that other countries have their own population problems, including housing and employment.  They do not seek in any way to promote a mass emigration which will cause difficulty in the countries to which emigrants go.  They do feel however, that their own problems could be alleviated if schemes could be arranged for the controlled emigration of different classes of persons.  While they would not be unwilling for this controlled emigration to be permanent, they would be equally willing for it to be temporary and they would place no restrictions or obstacles in the way of Barbadians wishing to return to their Island after a period of years.”
o   Barbadian officials willing to compromise with Canadian officials for the emigration of their people.  The proposal was logical and used an employment market that Canadians needed filled (Domestic Service) and used an equally good example of how this scheme worked in the UK for Barbadian female emigrants with the National Institute of House Workers (N.I.H).
o   “It is requested that the Canadian Government should give sympathetic consideration to the above proposals.”

§  A Damning and Hypocritical Statement against Black Immigration
§  A Review of Immigration from the British West Indies.  January 14th, 1955.
o   “While restrictive, our policy with respect to Negroes has never been one of absolute exclusion; for example, Negroes who are British subjects within the meaning of Regulation 20(1) have always been admissible to this country.
o   “Argument Against an Immigration Agreement”:
§  “It is not by accident that coloured British subjects other than the negligible numbers from the United Kingdom are excluded from Canada.  It is from experience, generally speaking, that coloured people in the present state of the white man’s thinking are not a tangible community asset, and as a result are more or less ostracized.  They do not assimilate readily and pretty much vegetate to a low standard of living.  Despite what has been said to the contrary, many cannot adapt themselves to our climatic conditions.  To enter into an agreement which would have the effect of increasing coloured immigration to this country would be an act of misguided generosity since it would not have the effect of bringing about a worthwhile solution to the problem of coloured people and would quite likely intensify our own social and economic problem.  I think that the biggest single argument against increasing coloured immigration to this country is the simple fact that the Canadian public is not prepared to accept them in any significant numbers.”
§  Furthermore, our present programme is one of selective immigration and because it is selective it is regarded by many as being restrictive, thus we are vulnerable to charges of discrimination.  The establishment of an agreement which would provide for a quota of Negroes would have the effect of rendering our restrictive policy more obvious.”
§  The Canadian Government knew their policy towards Black WI immigration was discrimination, but wanted to keep the decision making arbitrary and obfuscated so that no one could actually charge them with discrimination.
o   “Considerations in Favour of an Agreement”
§  “Despite legislation forbidding discrimination, I believe it would be unrealistic to suggest that discrimination is not being practiced in Canada at the present time.  I submit that a possible solution to this problem would be to admit such coloured persons who, because of their qualifications, are likely to become exceptional citizens and thus render the Negro more generally acceptable in Canada.  This would be a long term programme, but one worthy of serious thought and one which adds weight to the suggestion that Negro immigration to this country be increased.”
o   “Considering both sides of the argument, I consider that the disadvantages outweigh the advantages and I would recommend that no action be taken in this regard this year and the matter be reviewed again when considering the 1956 immigration programme.”

§  Letter from J.W. Pickersgill, to His Excellency Brigadier Sir Robert Duncan Harris Arundel, K.C.M.G., O.B.E., Governor of the Windward Islands, Government House, Barbados, British West Indies.  December 16th, 1954.
o   “At the present time, our immigration policy provides only for the admission from Barbados of close relatives of legal residents of Canada and persons whose circumstances have exceptional merit.  I fear it would not be realistic for me to hold out much hope of any fundamental change in the present policy in the near future.”
§  Letter from the Governor at the Government House Barbados, November, 1954.
o   Trying to sell the British kinship and loyalties of Barbadians and their loyalty to Canada to promote increased emigration to Canada.
o   “It is understood that Canada is presently in need of immigrants.  The loyalty of Barbadians to the British Crown is a historical fact and it is felt that Barbadians could settle as workers, either permanently or temporarily, in Canada, a fellow member of the British Commonwealth of Nations, with profit to Canada and credit to themselves.  Indeed, several Barbadians served with the Canadian forces during the last World War with credit, and many of these have elected to remain in Canada.”
o   “I therefore request you to be so good as to advise this Government on the possibilities of employment of Barbadians in the fields suggested in this letter (domestic servants), and in any others in which there is an unsatisfied demand for man-power.”

§  Negro Citizenship Association – Racist Immigration Policy
§  Memorandum: Brief Presented to the Prime Minister, Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Members of the Government of Canada, by the Negro Citizenship Association, Tuesday April 27th, 1954.  Donald W. Moore (Director) and Norman Grizzle, D.C. (Secretary)
o   The Immigration Act since 1923 seems to have been purposely written and revised to deny equal immigration status to those areas of the Commonwealth where coloured peoples constitute a large part of the population.  This is done by creating a rigid definition of British subject:  ‘British subjects by birth or by naturalization in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand or the Union of South Africa and citizens of Ireland’.  This definition excludes from the category of ‘British subject’ those who are in all other senses British subjects, but who come from such areas as the British West Indies, Bermuda, British Guiana, Ceylon, India, Pakistan, Africa, etc.”
o   NCA refutes the Climate Theory saying, “Negroes have for a century and a half moved into Canada from tropical areas, and have taken up life here with no great problems of adjustment to climate”.  Also cited examples of West Indians serving the British army in all parts of the world with no problems.
o   NCA refutes the Non-Assimilation claim: “The customs, habits, modes of life, or methods of holding property in the West Indies are essentially the same as in Canada, and no change is necessary when these people become part of the Canadian way of life.”
o   Conclusions:
o   “The Negro Citizenship Association respectfully requests that the Government of Canada”:
§  “Amend the definition of ‘British Subject’ so as to include all those who are, for all other purposes, regarded as ‘British subjects and citizens of the United Kingdom and Commonwealth.”
§  “Make provision in the Act of the entry of a British West Indian – without regard to racial origin – who has sufficient means to maintain himself until he has secured employment.”
§  “Delete the word ‘orphan’ from the regulation which provides for the entry of nephews and nieces under 21.”
§  “Make specific the term ‘persons of exceptional merit.’
§  “Set up an Immigration Office in an centrally located area of the British West Indies for the handling of prospective immigrants.”

§  “Immigration from Barbados”:
o   “Background of Immigration Movement”:
§  “Until the coming into force of the 1962 Immigration Regulations, admission from the West Indies was restricted to close relatives sponsored by Canadian citizens or residents.  The Department did seek special authority, however, in a fairly substantial number of cases of exceptional merit involving West Indians who were especially well suited.”
o   “Household Services Workers”:
§  1955 Domestic Workers Scheme:
·         75 from Jamaica and 25 from Barbados
·         Extended to other WI countries and totaled 280 by 1960
·         Domestic quota increased to 42 by 1959, remained at that level until the Domestic Scheme ended.
§  Following 1962 De-racialization ofCanadian immigration, Domestic scheme was no longer needed.               
·         Domestic workers could now be accepted through the immigrant stream as long as they met the selection criteria
·         By October 1967 (Points System), “it was felt that the special movement could no longer be justified as it would run counter to the principle of universality embodied in the Regulations.  Consequently, the various governments concerned were informed of our decision to end the special movement in 1968”.
o   “Seasonal Workers”:
§  In 1960, West Indian Government asked Canada if seasonal workers in the US could come to Canada as part of the annual “United States-Canada exchange programme”.  They would harvest potatoes, apples, tobacco, and other crops.
§  Maintained until 1966, until prior to the Caribbean-Canada Conference it was decided that farm workers would come directly from the West Indies to Canada.
§  Programme continued in 1968, where 1,258 West Indians came to Canada, 331 (26%) from Barbados.
o   “Size of Movement”:
§  “There was a gradual increase in the number of West Indians admitted before 1955 and then the rate increased by more than 50 percent and reached 8,387 for the West Indies in 1967.  Of more significance, however, during this period is the change in the racial content of the movement.  In 1950, only 19 percent of the persons admitted form the West Indies were Negroes while in 1963 the figure had jumped to 70 percent.”
§  “With the coming into force of the new Immigration Regulations in 1962, West Indians have been admitted to Canada as unsponsored immigrants.  Immigration selection teams visited the Caribbean area once in 1963 and 1964 and twice in 1965 and 1966.  During 1967, several teams went to specific areas in order to clear up the backlog before the establishment of our two offices in the West Indies.”
o   Before 1962, “there was no need and less incentive for the Department to open an office in the Caribbean”.  Then with the new Regulations in 1962, it was needed.
§  By 1967, two offices were opened.  One in Kingston, Jamaica, and the other in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, which covers Barbados.

§  Letter to J.B. Bissett, Director General, Foreign Service Region from R. Martineau, Chief, Western Hemisphere.  January 29th, 1975.
o   Barbadian emigrants to Canada in 1967: 1181.